Academic Advising Resources


 Angelo, T. (November, 1995). “Reassessing and Defining Assessment.” AAHE Bulletin.

Suggests that student learning can be assessed indirectly through correlated measures of teaching, including the assessment of multiple dimensions of learning, use of multiple assessors, and conducting assessment over time.The processes discussed and the importance of student learning as a desired outcome makes this relevant to assessment of academic advising.

 Appleby, D. C. (2008). Advising as teaching and learning.In Gordon, V.N., Habley, W.R. & Grites, T.J. (Eds). Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook (2nd edition) (pp. 85-102).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Presents academic advising as a form of teaching, emphasizing the shared skills and common competencies involved in both effective teaching and effective academic advising.  Discusses the use of an academic syllabus for advising, and emphasizes the importance of identifying and assessing student learning outcomes for academic advising as is done with academic programs.

Astin, A. W.  (1991). Assessment for Excellence: The Philosophy and Practice of Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education. New York: MacMillan.

Discusses the importance of evaluation and assessment in higher education, focusing primarily on evaluation and assessment of academic programs.  One of the most important aspects of this work is that the author distinguishes between evaluation and assessment, and provides a discussion of the philosophical underpinnings for conducting evaluation and assessment in higher education.

CAS Standards and Guidelines for Academic Advising website 

The Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) is recognized as a leading authority in the identification of values, principles, and standards of practices for various facets of higher education, including academic advising.  CAS offers 16 “relevant and desirable” student learning outcomes for academic advising applicable to every type of higher educational setting, as well as standards and expectations for the academic advising director and the academic advising program.  These student learning outcomes (or derivations thereof) may be used as desired outcomes for advising programs, depending on the institutional and programmatic mission, goals and objectives.

Campbell, S. M. (2008). Vision, mission, goals, and programmatic objectives for academic advising programs. InGordon, V.N., Habley, W.R. & Grites, T.J. (Eds). Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook (2nd edition) (pp. 229-243).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

An updated chapter following White (2000).  Introduces the reader to the concepts of vision, mission, goals, and objectives, as well as the relational nature of such statements and their importance in strategically guiding an effective academic advising program.  As it is from these identified aspects of the advising program which student learning outcomes are derived, this chapter provides an important basis for the understanding of the entire process involved in identifying and assessing student learning outcomes for academic advising.

Campbell, S., Nutt, C., Robbins, R., Kirk-Kuwaye, M., & Higa, L. (2005). NACADA guide to assessment in academic advising.  Manhattan, KS: National Academic Advising Association.

Provides a theoretical introduction to and a step-by-step process for developing an assessment program specifically for academic advising.  Included are examples and templates to walk the reader through the steps of assessment of advising.

Creamer, E. G., & Scott, D. W. (2000).  Assessing individual advisor effectiveness.  In Gordon, V.N. & Habley, W.R. (Eds). Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook (339-348).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Describes the popular methodologies used to evaluate individual advisor performance and effectiveness.  Although not a discussion of assessment of academic advising, individual advisor effectiveness can serve as one of multiple forms of measurement in the assessment of student learning outcomes.

Cuseo, J. (2008). Assessing advisor effectiveness. InGordon, V.N., Habley, W.R. & Grites, T.J. (Eds.). Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook (2nd edition) (pp. 369-385).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

An updated chapter following Creamer and Scott (2000).  The emphasis here again is on evaluation of advisor effectiveness rather than assessment of student learning outcomes for academic advising, focusing primarily on student perceptions of advisor effectiveness.  Although not a discussion of assessment of academic advising, individual advisor effectiveness can serve as one of multiple forms of measurement in the assessment of student learning outcomes.

Ewell, P.  (2000).  As sessment of Learning.  AAHE Assessment Forum, Denver, Colorado.

Provides an overview of the processes involved in assessment of student learning in higher education, with a focus on academic programs.  The processes discussed and the importance of student learning as a desired outcome makes this relevant to assessment of academic advising

Lynch, M. L. (2000).  Assessing the effectiveness of the advising program.  In Gordon,V.N. & Habley, W.R. (Eds). Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook (pp 324-338).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Discusses the components of an effective advising program and the differences between process evaluation (assessment) and outcome evaluation (assessment) of advising programs.   Includes a discussion of the importance of multiple forms of data measurement in these processes as well as considerations in planning and conducting assessment of advising.

Maki, P.  (2004).  Assessing for Learning.  AAHE and Stylus Publishing Company.

Offers a systematic and collaborative process of assessing for student learning including but going beyond the classroom.  Student learning is viewed as a core process of institutional learning, with assessment a necessary activity to improve educational practice and student learning.  Included are clearly written definitions and examples of various assessment terms, practices, and resources including worksheets and exercises.

Marchese, T. (1993). AAHE Continuous Quality Improvement Project: Profiles of Campuses. The Assessment Institute, Braintree, Massachusetts.

Describes the role of assessment in the Total Quality Management approach to higher education that was popular in the 1980s and early 1990s.  Emphasizes the importance of the systematic process of assessment in improving student development and learning, using examples from specific campuses.

McGillin, V. (2003). Research versus Assessment: What’s the Difference? Academic Advising Today, 26 (4). Retrieved from

This article describes the similarities and differences between assessment and research, emphasizing the progression through which assessment of academic advising can evolve into a research inquiry.

NACADA Assessment of Advising Commission Website, Retrieved from 

Lists resources primarily for advisor evaluation with some information on assessment of advising services, including examples of evaluative instruments, surveys, and inventories developed and used by institutions of higher education, as well as standardized inventories used for evaluation of advising.

NACADA Clearinghouse of Academic Advising Resources, Retrieved from

Provides searchable database of thousands of articles and resources about and related to academic advising in higher education.  Users can specifically search for resources on evaluation and assessment of advising.

Nutt, C. L. (2004). Assessing student learning in academic advising. Academic Advising Today, 27 ( 4 ). Retrieved from

Discusses the importance of a mission statement for academic advising regarding programmatic, institutional, and assessment purposes, and provides an introduction to student learning outcomes for academic advising (including examples), relating student learning outcomes to the advising mission statement.

Palomba, C. A., and Banta, T. W. (1999). Assessment Essentials: Planning, Implementing, and Improving Assessment in Higher Education.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Examines assessment practices in higher education including developing learning goals and objectives, involving faculty, staff, and students, selecting and designing methods, reporting and using results, and assessing the assessment program. Examples of assessment activities are provided from all types of institutions.

Pellegrino, J. W., Chudowsky, N. & Glaser, R. (2001). Knowing What Students Know: The Science and Design of Educational Assessment. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

Discusses how expanding knowledge in the fields of human learning and educational measurement can be used to improve assessment of what students know and how well they know it, as well as the methods used to make inferences about student learning.  Included are principles for designing and using new kinds of assessments with examples provided.


Ratcliff, J. R., Lubinescu, E. S., and Gaffney, M. A. (2001). How accreditation influences assessment. New Directions for Higher Education, Number 113, Jossey-Bass.

This straightforward work discusses how the initial purpose for assessment is often based on external requirements for data demonstrating effectiveness, and how assessment processes are often designed with specific accreditation requirements in mind.  The emphasis is on assessment of academic programs, but the message is clear and relevant to all areas of assessment in higher education.

Robbins, R. L. (2009).  Evaluation and assessment of career advising.  In Hughey, K., Burton Nelson, D., Damminger, J. and McCalla-Wriggins, B. (Eds.).The Handbook of Career Advising (chapter 12).San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Although written primarily in regard to career advising, the concepts and processes included are also used in the assessment of academic advising.  This chapter discusses the reasons for conducting assessment of advising, the differences between evaluation and assessment, and detailed concepts, steps, and processes of each.  Emphasis is placed on the assessment of student learning outcomes for advising, the mapping of the developmental and learning opportunities for these outcomes, and the use of multiple outcome measures for any single desired outcome as well as acting upon the results of assessment.

Schuh, J. H. (2008). Assessing student learning.In Gordon, V.N., Habley, W.R. & Grites,T.J. (Eds.). Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook (2nd edition) (pp. 356-368).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Introduces the importance of assessing student learning in areas of higher education beyond the academic program, including student affairs and academic advising.  Discusses the importance of identifying student learning outcomes and provides a general discussion of qualitative and quantitative data in outcome assessment of student learning.

Sims, S. R. (1992). Student Outcomes Assessment: A Historical Review and Guide to Program Development.  New York: Greenwood Press.

Provides a historical review of outcomes assessment in higher education and a general guide to designing, implementing, and evaluating assessment programs. Included are the topics of the role of the political context on assessment practices, factors contributing to the push for assessment, assessment as it has evolved through accrediting agencies,  and suggestions for evaluating the effectiveness of the assessment effort at institutions of higher education.

Troxel, W. G. (2008). Assessing the effectiveness of the advising program. In Gordon, V.N.. Habley, W.R. & Grites, T.J. (Eds.). Academic advising: A comprehensive handbook (2nd edition) (pp. 386-395).  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Delineates the various basic elements of an assessment process for academic advising at a somewhat cursory level, discussing in general terms the importance of assessment and general suggested steps in the process.

Upcraft, M. L., and Schuh, J. H.  (1996). Assessment in Student Affairs: A Guide for Practitioners.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Provides an overview of program evaluation, the tools to design and perform assessment in student affairs, and how to communicate the results and implement changes based on results. Included are discussions of outcome measures for programs and services, the use of both qualitative and quantitative methods, benchmarking, and professional standards.

White, E.R.(2000).Developing Mission, Goals, and Objectives for the Advising Program.  In Gordon, V. N. & Habley, W. R. Academic Advising: A Comprehensive Handbook.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Discusses the necessity of mission, goals, and objectives in developing a coherent and purposeful advising program, including the connection between institutional mission and advising mission, the development of relevant goals, and a brief introduction to the importance of these three features of and advising program in the assessment of academic advising.

Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., and Newcomer, K. E. (1994). Handbook of Practical Program Evaluation.  San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

This extensive and well-written handbook provides eight suggested methods for outcome-based program evaluations, including step-by-step descriptions of these methods, data collection and analysis procedures, and real-life examples of these programs.  The authors emphasize the role of theory, examination of previous research, selection of an appropriate evaluation methodology, and the importance of realistic goals in conducting this form of research. Presented are not only the positive aspects of such programs, but also a detailed discussion of the constraints and issues involved, including examples of unexpected or negative results and how to deal with these.


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