Equations. The author is responsible for ensuring that equations are rendered properly. Use the Word equation function.

Tables. All tables and figures are professionally typeset based on a standardized style. Authors should not apply pre-set or custom styles, shading, or spacing to make the tables look a certain way.

  • Number all tables (Arabic) as they are to appear in the text and ensure that all tables are mentioned in the text.
  • Use Word table generator; do not apply styles, shading, or underlining.
  • Do not copy and paste a table from Excel.
  • Do not use the space bar, soft returns, tabs, or hard returns to space table data.
  • Use a distinct table row or column for data points; that is, do not separate data in one cell with hard returns or tabs.
  • Do not use preselected column and row heights; use fit-to-contents option.
  • Single space all rows; do not allow lead or following spaces in the paragraph option.
  • Use *, **, †, ††, in this order, not bold or italics, to indicate significance of data.
  • Use superscript a, b, c, and so forth sparingly for table notes.


  • Do not use figures if tables accurately relate the information. 
  • Number all figures (Arabic) as they are to appear in the text.
  • Generate all figures in Excel. Send the entire source file, including data sheets.
  • Do not use color in graphics; all NACADA publications are printed in black and white. To distinguish bars or lines, use patterns or very distinct shading.
  • The author is responsible for securing permission to use graphics or data from other sources.
  • If re-creating a graphic from another source, secure permission to adapt the figure.
  • High resolution, original graphics must be submitted (300-600 dpi) in Arial font attached.
  • Do not send a scan or photocopy of a graphic.